Transition metal oxide supported, nano-scaled noble metal catalysts are known to show a variety of surface modifications when they are being reduced at increasing temperatures. Such processes involve for example (surface) alloying and the formation of partially reduced oxidic support overlayers that are both induced by the so-called strong metal-support interaction (SMSI). The present work investigated a series of oxide supported Palladium powder catalysts with a loading variation between 1-5 wt.-% on their structure-function relationship after reduction in different media and at different temperatures to create a reference system and explore the nature of SMSI. Hereby surface and bulk sensitive techniques like XPS, chemisorption, TEM, DRIFTS or XRD were applied to study the influence of electronic and structural modifications on the activity in catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide which served as the main test reaction and was conducted at ambient pressure. The catalysts were synthesized reproducibly by a controlled co-precipitation approach and by impregnation. The investigated Pd/iron oxide system shows palladium surface decoration at comparably low reduction temperatures. The surface cover was found to be volatile in oxygen containing atmosphere and formed reversibly. Dependent on the Pd particle size it increases the CO oxidation activity. Alloy formation occurs at higher reduction temperatures. In case of the Pd/zinc oxide system reversible surface alloying takes place during reduction that is also beneficial for CO oxidation, but again deactivates fast. When being reduced at even higher temperatures the additional formation of an oxidic overlayer could be observed that does not further activate the system but leads to an overall reduction of active sites. Due to alloy formation, the zinc oxide system at higher conversions shows a different selectivity behavior in acetylene hydrogenation, compared to the iron oxide system. Also in case of the Pd/titania system, reversible surface decoration by partially reduced support happens during reduction. Different to the other investigated systems the surface-cover reversibly decreases CO oxidation activity however. The Pd/alumina system was studied as a less reducible reference. As expected, it does not show SMSI-induced modifications. In the end the work clearly shows that CO oxidation is a convenient method to study activity and stability of SMSI and decouple it from other involved processes. The effects of surface modification on the catalytic activity in this test reaction however strongly depend on the specific system and pre-conditioning and can either be of activating or deactivating nature. The basic principles involved in case of SMSI seem to apply both in UHV model systems and at powder systems at ambient pressure as found by the catalytic measurements.
|School:||Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)|
|Source:||DAI-C 81/1(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Materials science, Thermodynamics|
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