Food is crucial for all life on the planet, however food security is a problem in many parts of the world (Van Straaten, 2006). In the last decade the number of undernourished grew to 1.02 billion (FAO, 2009). Shapouri et al. (2010) estimates by 2020 food insecurity will reach 500 million in SSA. In a world with limited resources, the only solution to meet food demand is by maximizing yield per unit of land (Van Straaten, 2006). Large-scale intensive farming is widely practiced in the US as a solution to this growing problem (Fyfe et al., 2006). Current food production practices are driven by mass production, which is highlighted by large inputs including pesticides, fertilizers, and irrigation. Although these techniques have revolutionized agriculture and helped combat world hunger, ill effects have been reported such as soil degradation and loss of biodiversity (Tilman et al., 2002). Alternative techniques can be introduced which increase plant production and are environmentally friendly, less costly, and less intensive (Theodoro & Leonardos, 2006). Two of these methods are magnetic fields and radiation (Aladjadjiyan, 2012). Magnetic fields were confirmed to affect plant growth, germination, metabolism, and vigor (Celik et al., 2009; Zuniga et al., 2016).
Literature suggests pyramidal shapes harness the magnetic field of the earth to generate para magnetism within their structure (Van Doorne, 2013). Although pyramids have produced documented improvements in plant growth and germination (Kumar et al., 2010), the use of pyramids to incubate seeds before planting has not been tested. The purpose of this research was to describe the impacts of pre-sowing incubation within a pyramid on germination characteristics, seedling growth, seed desiccation, and soil condition, as well as describe any relationships existing between independent and dependent variables. Both wooden and copper pyramids were used, and seeds were incubated for periods of 5, 10, 35, and 45 days. A total of 1,800 seeds were tested. Data were analyzed in SPSS using one-way ANOVA’s at p<.05 significance level. Pyramids negatively affected germination frequency, percentage, time, and rate, but positively affected uniformity (synchrony, uncertainty, variation of germination time). Conclusions indicate longer incubation periods are beneficial for germination and uniformity, while shorter incubation periods increased vegetative growth. Copper pyramids excelled over wooden pyramids when examining seedling growth. Copper pyramids paired with longer incubation periods saw the highest increase in seed weight. The highest average soil temperature was recorded in the wooden pyramid, and soil pH remained unchanged.
|Advisor:||Langley, G. C.|
|Commitee:||Kattes, David H., Shockey, Manon L., Wade, Michael R.|
|School:||Tarleton State University|
|Department:||Agricultural and Consumer Sciences|
|School Location:||United States -- Texas|
|Source:||MAI 56/06M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Horticulture, Agriculture, Plant sciences|
|Keywords:||Bean, Magnetic field, Phaseolus vulgaris l., Pyramid energy, Seed germination, Yield|
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