Depression among youth is recognized as a significant public health concern. Increased research has focused on identifying risk and protective factors for depression among youth. However, limited attention has been directed at examining community-level risk factors for depression, such exposure to violence, or has focused on ethnic minority groups, such as African American adolescents. This study examined the relationship between 3 types of exposure to violence (community, family, and school) and depressive symptoms among 212 (133 females; 79 females) African American high school students. An ecological model of depression based on Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological system's theory is presented that includes multiple protective factors at three levels (individual-level, micro-level, meso-level). Although the proposed model was not supported, exposure to violence as a risk factor and several compensatory factors for depressive symptoms were identified. Exposure to community violence and exposure to school violence were associated with increased depressive symptoms. Increased feelings of self-acceptance, racial identity, family support, peer support, and neighborhood cohesion were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Results highlight the importance of examining both individual and community-level risk and protective factors. Implications of the findings for the development of culturally relevant preventive interventions that target youth who are exposed to violence are discussed.
KEY WORDS: community violence exposure; depression, African Americans; adolescents; protective factors
|Advisor:||Molock, Sherry Davis|
|Commitee:||Elmore, Diane, Lambert, Sharon, Moore, Phillip, Petersom, Rolf, Zea, Maria Cecilia|
|School:||The George Washington University|
|School Location:||United States -- District of Columbia|
|Source:||DAI-B 69/06, Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||African Americans, Psychotherapy|
|Keywords:||Adolescents, African-American, Community violence exposure, Depression, Protective, Protective factors, Violence exposure|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be