Water utilization in the production of hydrocarbons from tight, unconventional shale reservoirs is most prevalent during drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and enhanced oil recovery operations. As such, water–shale interactions are inevitable. The interaction between water and shale results in phenomena both beneficial and detrimental to the flow of hydrocarbons through the pore network within the shale matrix including clay swell, calcite dissolution, and pore structure wetting. These phenomena will impact the production of hydrocarbon gas constituents differently based on molecular interactions between the gas and the shale matrix, the water and the shale matrix, and the gas and the water.
This study implements gas chromatography as an analytical technique to measure the composition of interlayer and adsorbed hydrocarbon gas extracted from Eagle Ford shale. The gas extraction utilized includes both dry and water–wet techniques. To extract hydrocarbon gas from under dry conditions, the shale is crushed to between 88 and 105 micrometers. Water–wet extraction takes place as the previously crushed Eagle Ford shale is soaked in deionized water. The gas extracted from the Eagle Ford shale using each of the techniques allows for a comparison of the hydrocarbon compositions. Comparing the two gas compositions provides insight into the impact of water on the transport mechanisms of each gaseous hydrocarbon component.
The results of this study indicate a significant difference in the gas composition depending on the extraction technique implemented. Molecular geometry, water solubility, and storage location of the hydrocarbon gas within the shale matrix were found to have the most significant impact on how water affected production. Production of heavy molecular weight gas stored within kerogen deposits and relatively water soluble butane demonstrated unhindered transport with dry to water–wet production ratios of 1:1. Alternatively, methane, ethane, isobutane, pentane, and isopentane demonstrated hindered transport.
|Commitee:||Boukadi, Fathi, Mokhtari, Mehdi|
|School:||University of Louisiana at Lafayette|
|School Location:||United States -- Louisiana|
|Source:||MAI 56/06M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Engineering, Petroleum engineering|
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