Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a simulation with audio narrative intervention on active listening, self-awareness, empathy, and patient-centered care (PCC) and the relationships among active listening, self-awareness, empathy, and PCC in associate and baccalaureate degree nursing students.
Background: Higher levels of empathy among healthcare providers (HCPs) lead to PCC, which both have been associated with better patient outcomes. Nursing students are future HCPs, but their levels of empathy are lower than optimal levels and those in other HCPs and students. Thus, interventions are needed to improve empathy. In Rogers’ theory, active listening and self-awareness can lead to empathy, and, in turn, PCC. Interventions targeting active listening and self-awareness have not been provided to improve empathy.
Methods: A two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) was used to collect data on active listening, self-awareness, empathy, and PCC, at baseline, first follow-up, and second follow-up from 53 nursing students at a rural southern four-year university in the United States. A simulation with audio narrative intervention was provided to the intervention group (IG). Data were analyzed using independent and paired t-tests, simple and multiple regressions, and ANCOVA.
Results: Active listening, self-awareness, empathy, and PCC scores at the second follow-up or at both follow-ups were improved in the IG compared to the control group (CG) and baseline. The scores of self-awareness in the IG significantly differed only at the second follow-up compared to those in the CG (p < .001). The scores of active listening, empathy, and PCC in the IG significantly differed at both follow-ups compared to those in the CG (ps < .05). Active listening and self-awareness were associated with empathy (ps < .05), and empathy was associated with PCC (p < .05).
Conclusion: The intervention was effective to improve active listening, self-awareness, empathy, and PCC. In addition, the relationships among active listening, self-awareness, empathy, and PCC in Rogers’ theory were supported. Nurse educators can use simulation with audio narrative intervention to improve empathy and PCC.
|Commitee:||Anders, Michael, Barone, Claudia, Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna, Wright, Patricia|
|School:||University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences|
|School Location:||United States -- Arkansas|
|Source:||DAI-B 78/11(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Active listening, Empathy, Nursing student, Patient-centered care, Self-awareness, Simulation|
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