The identification and quantification of all the voxels within a reconstructed microCT image was possible through making comparisons of the attenuation profile from an unknown voxel with precalculated signatures of known materials. This was accomplished through simulations with the MCNP6 general-purpose radiation-transport package that modeled a CdTe detector array consisting of 200 elements which were able to differentiate between 100 separate energy bins over the entire range of the emitted 110 kVp tungsten x-ray spectra. The information from each of the separate energy bins was then used to create a single reconstructed image that was then grouped back together to produce a final image where each voxel had a corresponding attenuation pro le. A library of known attenuation profiles was created for each of the materials expected to be within an object with otherwise unknown parameters. A least squares analysis was performed, and comparisons were then made for each voxel's attenuation profile in the unknown object and combinations of each possible library combination of attenuation profiles. Based on predetermined thresholds that the results must meet, some of the combinations were then removed. Of the remaining combinations, a voting system based on statistical evaluations of the fits was designed to select the most appropriate material combination to the input unknown voxel. This was performed over all of the voxels in the reconstructed image and a final resulting material map was produced. These material locations were then quantified by creating an equation of the response from several different densities of the same material and recording the response of the base library. This entire process was called the All Combinations Library Least Squares (ACLLS)analysis and was used to test several Different models. These models investigated a range of densities for the x-ray contrast agents of gold and gadolinium that can be used in many medical applications, as well as a range of densities of bone to test the ACLLS ability to be used with bone density estimation. A final test used a model with five different materials present within the object and consisted of two separate features with mixtures of three materials as gold, iodine and water, and another feature with gadolinium, iodine and water. The remaining four features were all mixtures of water with bone, gold, gadolinium, and iodine. All of the various material mixtures were successfully identified and quantified using the ACLLS analysis package within an acceptable statistical range. The ACLLS method has proven itself as a viable analysis tool for determining both the physical locations and the amount of all the materials present within a given object. This tool could be implemented in the future so as to further assist a team of medical practitioners in diagnosing a subject through reducing ambiguities in an image and providing a quantifiable solution to all of the voxels.
|Advisor:||Gardner, Robin, Lalush, David|
|School:||North Carolina State University|
|School Location:||United States -- North Carolina|
|Source:||DAI-B 78/10(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Biomedical engineering, Nuclear engineering|
|Keywords:||Library least squares, Material identification, Material quantification, Micro-CT, Monte-Carlo, Multi-channel analysis|
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