This dissertation has two major contributions. First, a hierarchically distributed non- intrusive Agent Aided Distance Relaying Protection Scheme (AADRPS) is proposed to im- prove the robustness of distance relays to hidden failures. The problem of adapting the proposed AADRPS to a larger power system network consisting of thousands of buses is modeled as an integer linear programming multiple facility location optimization problem. Distance relaying protection scheme is a real time system and has stringent timing require- ments. Therefore, in order to verify if the proposed AADRPS meets the timing requirements or not and also to check for deadlocks, verification models based on UPPAAL real time model checker are provided in this dissertation. So, the entire framework consisting of AADRPS that aids in increasing the robustness of distance relays and reducing the possibility of black- outs, the multiple facility location optimization models and the UPPAAL real time model checker verification models form one of the major contributions of this dissertation.
The second contribution is related to the MAC layer of AMI networks. In this dissertation, FLEX-MAC - a novel and flexible MAC protocol is proposed to reduce the overhead and latency in smart meter data collection. The novelty of the FLEX-MAC lies in its ability to change the mode of operation based on the type of the data being collected in a smart meter network. FLEX-MAC employs Frame and Channel Reserved (FCR) MAC or Frame Reserved and Random Channel (FRRC) MAC for scheduled data collection. Power outage data in an AMI network is considered as a random data . In a densely populated area, during an outage, a large number of smart meters attempt to report the outage, which significantly increases the Random Access CHannel (RACH) load. In order to reduce the RACH traffic during an outage, this dissertation proposes a Time Hierarchical Scheme (THS). Also, in order to minimize the total time to collect the power outage data, a Backward Recursive Dynamic Programming (BRDP) approach is proposed to adapt the transmission rate of smart meters reporting an outage. Both the Optimal Transmission Rate Adaption and Time Hierarchical Scheme form the basis of OTRA-THS MAC which is employed by FLEX-MAC for random data collection. Additionally, in this work, Markov chain models are presented for evaluating the performance of FCR and FRRC MACs in terms of average throughput and delay. Also, another Markov model is presented to find the mean time to absorption or mean time to collect power outage data of OTRA-TH MAC during an outage. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.)
|Advisor:||Reed, Jeffrey H.|
|School:||Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University|
|School Location:||United States -- Virginia|
|Source:||DAI-B 78/09(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Computer Engineering, Electrical engineering|
|Keywords:||Blackouts, Distance relays, Hidden failures, Markov chains, Smart grids, Spread spectrum|
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