The purpose of the study was to compare risk factors for hypertension among African Americans, Whites and Mexican Americans. The following risk factors were investigated: demographic, socio-demographic, dietary intakes (total calories, fiber, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, total protein, fat (saturated, cholesterol, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated), blood pressure, smoking, alcoholic, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), health insurance, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 data were utilized for this study. The sample included 1,745 individuals, aged 40-60 years. SUDAAN software was used for data analysis. Statistical procedures included chi-square and t-tests. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine variables predictive of hypertension in each of the ethnic groups.
Except for systolic blood pressure (SBP) in Mexican Americans, SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels were higher in African-American, White and Mexican-American males compared to females. WC and BMI (except in African Americans), smoking in African Americans, Mexican Americans and Whites were significantly higher in hypertensives. Moderate and vigorous activities in Whites, vigorous weekly activity in Mexican Americans, and walking/bicycling for transportation in African Americans were lower in hypertensives.
African Americans were more hypertensive and higher DBP than Whites and MA, and highest SBP followed by Mexican Americans, then Whites. Higher dietary intakes of cholesterol and protein were found in hypertensive African Americans.
SBP was higher in African Americans with annual household incomes of $20,000-$34,999 and $55,000-74,999, Whites with annual household incomes of $35,000-$74,999. DBP was higher in African Americans with annual household incomes of $55,000-74,999, but lower in Whites with annual household incomes of $75,000-$99,999.
White males were more hypertensive than White females. In all ethnic groups subjects aged 50-60 years were more hypertensive than those aged 40-49 years. DBP was lower in African Americans with high school or GED diplomas. SBP was lower in Whites with College degrees or higher levels of education. DBP was higher in Whites and Mexican Americans with high school or GED diplomas. Whites with health insurance had lower SBP and DBP levels, and African Americans with health insurance had lower DBP levels.
Future studies on hypertension in the three ethnic groups should include dietary intakes determined using 3day food records, as well as dietary protein and cholesterol intakes in African Americans.
|Advisor:||Johnson, Allan A.|
|Commitee:||Batista, Cilia Desouza, Fungwe, Thomas V., Graham, Avis P., Johnson, Allan A., Toombs, Dionne|
|School Location:||United States -- District of Columbia|
|Source:||DAI-B 78/09(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Nutrition, Ethnic studies, Health education|
|Keywords:||African americans, Blacks, Hypertension, Mexican americans, Risk factors / comparison, Whites|
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