Hakka people in Taiwan remain largely unreached after 150 years of Protestant missionary activity. The purpose of this Participatory Action Research is to understand how Taiwanese Hakka ministers perceive the impact of participating in interventions designed to increase the awareness of the three binary cultural value systems, guilt and innocence (GI), shame and honor (SH), and fear and power (FP) in communicating the gospel. In this study, I laid the theoretical foundation of evangelism, taking into account the GI, SH, and FP cultural values. The cultural values found in Hakka ministers’ methods of gospel communication prior to the intervention was mainly GI, sometimes FP (depending on the theological stance of individual church), and intuitively SH yet with a need for developed SH theology.
The intervention measure of the seminar “Worldview and Reflection on Hakka Evangelism” proved to be crucial as the participants expressed that this was the first time they had heard theology presented systematically from an SH perspective. The focus group agreed that GI, SH, and FP provided a helpful system for understanding the Scripture and further contextualizing evangelism. They learned to think more holistically, which is conducive for further contextualization efforts in Hakka evangelism.
My main research question was “What are Hakka ministers’ perceptions of the impact of a seminar designed to increase their awareness of the three cultural values, GI, SH, and FP, in communicating the gospel?” The central understanding was that “The perception of Hakka ministers is that intentionally contextualizing church events and ministries by incorporating the three cultural values in the order of SH→ FP→ GI with progressive messages, in the form of concrete Bible stories and personal testimonies, is likely to increase the impact on Hakka evangelism and discipleship.”
Finally, I made suggestions for future research, including greater development of SH theology, orality, and partnership development. These three fields have potential to greatly enhance the impact of evangelism on the Hakka and unreached people groups around the globe and restructure our theological training and discipleship processes.
|Advisor:||Steffen, Tom A.|
|Commitee:||Dzubinski, Leanne M.|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||DAI-A 78/09(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Asian Studies, Theology, Ethnic studies|
|Keywords:||China, Contextualization, Evangelism, Fear and power, Guilt and innocence, Hakka, Shame and honor, Taiwan|
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