In 2015, the Pew Research Center reported that ninety percent of American adults owned a cell phone and sixty-four percent owned a smart phone. Any researcher who set outs to examine the nature of relationships in the 21st century must consider how cell phone technology influences communication and connectedness. Current research reveals that variables such as age, gender, and personality traits influence an individual’s level of cell phone dependence (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005; Lee, Chang, & Lin, 2014; Takao, 2014; Walsh, White, Cox, & Young, 2011), and that cell phone dependence is linked to symptoms of anxiety (Billieux, Van der Linden, and Rochat, 2008), depression (Saeb et al., 2015; Thomée, Harenstam, & Hagberg, 2011), sleep disturbances (Jenaro, Flores, Gómez-Vela, González-Gil, & Caballo, 2007; Thomée, Harenstam, & Hagberg, 2011), and low self-esteem (Walsh, White, Cox, & Young, 2011). This study examined the role of age, gender, and differentiation of self in predicting cell phone dependence and cell phone usage. Research data was collected through an Internet self-report survey from 282 adults in the United States and internationally. Hierarchical regression analysis reveal that differentiation of self explained a significant amount of variance in cell phone involvement after controlling for age and gender but did not for cell phone use. These results are discussed as they relate to the potential for addressing cell phone dependence through counseling interventions.
|Advisor:||Marotta-Walters, Sylvia A.|
|Commitee:||Casemore, Brian, Lanthier, Richard P.|
|School:||The George Washington University|
|School Location:||United States -- District of Columbia|
|Source:||DAI-B 78/07(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Cell phone, Counseling, Differentiation, Family systems, Technology|
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