The sub-state violent nationalism in the Basque and Catalan regions of Spain utilizes two divergent tactics: violence in the Basque case of ETA and nonviolence in the Catalonia. This thesis critiques the dominant cultural explanation for this divergence, especially the work of Daniele Conversi. His cultural argument proposes culture as the explanatory variable which describes why these groups chose divergent paths. In place of the cultural argument this thesis proposes a historical understanding of the roots of the conflict and how those roots influenced the paths Catalans and Basques chose. In the Basque case, Volkan’s concept of Chosen Trauma can explain the role which the loss of the fueros, the region’s feudal configuration, plays in effecting ETA’s violent nature. Chosen Trauma is a historical event which leaders choose to justify their struggle. This concept provides a new lens for understanding the formation of violent Basque nationalism. In the Catalan case, history also plays a major role, especially the civil war and experiences of political infighting during that time. The choice by Catalans to pursue cultural and peaceful nationalism was driven by their defeat in the civil war and the need to create an overarching movement to unify the divergent political groups who had during the civil war resorted to violence to solve problems.
|School:||The American University of Paris (France)|
|Source:||MAI 56/02M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Basque, Catalonia, Nationalism, Non-violent, Peace, Violent|
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