Crystallization behavior of different waxes such as beeswax (BW), paraffin wax (PW), ricebran wax (RBW), sunflower wax (SFW) was studied individually and in different oil solutions. Binary mixture at various proportions of the individual waxes was also explored in this study. Soybean oil is used in most of the study but olive, corn, sunflower, safflower, and canola oils were also explored. Lipid crystalline networks were characterized by several physical properties such as melting profile, solid fat content, viscoelastic parameters, cooling rate, phase behavior, crystal morphology. High intensity ultrasound (HIU) was used to change processing conditions of lipid crystallization. Instruments used to analyze the physical characteristics were differential scanning calorimeter, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, rheometer, temperature controlled water-bath, turbiscan light scattering device, and polarized light microscopy. The use of high intensity ultrasound showed that HIU technology can be used to delay the phase separation in beeswax/ oil system (canola, corn, olive, safflower, sunflower and soybean oil). Crystal sizes were reduced in beeswax/oil system at 0.5 and 1% concentration with the application of HIU technology. A study on binary waxes showed different phase behavior: eutectic behavior in BW/PW, SFW/PW, SFW/ BW, and RBW/BW; monotectic behavior in RBW/PW and continuous solid solution in RBW/SFW. Binary waxes in oil system (2.5% binary waxes) showed different physical properties when a range of binary blends were analyzed. Phase diagrams using iso-solid lines in binary wax/oil study show similarity when binary waxes without oil were studied using melting profile data. From all the above study it is understood that the physical properties of wax/oil systems are affected not only by the concentration and type of wax used, but also by the type of oil and application of HIU which induces wax crystallization and retards phase separation in wax/oil systems. Studies performed on all the topics suggest that understanding wax crystallization could help develop product formulation in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, medicine and other industries.
|Commitee:||Chang, Tom, Hansen, Conly, Walsh, Marie, Ward, Robert|
|School:||Utah State University|
|Department:||Nutrition and Food Science|
|School Location:||United States -- Utah|
|Source:||DAI-B 78/05(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Crystallization, Lipids, Phase behavior, Soybean oil, Ultrasounds, Waxes|
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