Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) data have both drought monitoring and seasonal forecasting applications. It is the lifeblood of vegetation, an integral component of the hydrologic system, a determining factor in irrigation requirements, and works to govern the means by which energy imbalances are settled between land and atmosphere. The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) has worked in conjunction with the Colorado Climate Center to improve regional drought early warning through enhanced monitoring and understanding of RZSM. The chief goals of this research have been as follows: 1. Examine regional drought monitoring in the Upper Colorado River Basin and eastern Colorado with specific inquiry as to soil moisture’s role in the process. 2. Develop operational products that can be used to improve the weekly drought monitoring process in the Upper Colorado River Basin and eastern Colorado with an emphasis on utilization of soil moisture data. 3. Review in-situ soil moisture data from high elevation Snow Telemetry measurement sites in Colorado in order to understand the descriptive climatology of soil moisture over the Colorado Rockies. 4. Compare output from soil sensors installed by the Snow Telemetry and Colorado Agricultural Meteorological Network using current calibration methods in order to better understand application of direct comparison between output from the two different sensor types. Engineer a soil moisture core measurement protocol that is reliable within ten percent of the true volumetric water content value. This protocol, if successful on a local plot, will be expanded to alpha testers around the United States and used by the USDA for drought monitoring as well as NASA for ground validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Satellite. 5. Expose the seasonality and spatial variability of positive feedbacks that occur between RZSM and the atmosphere across the Upper Colorado River Basin and western High Plains using reanalysis data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2 (NLDAS).
Regional drought monitoring was found to involve assimilation of data from a bevy of sources. The decision-making process includes assessment of precipitation, soil moisture, snowpack, vegetative health, streamflow, reservoir levels, reference evapotranspiration, surface air temperature, and ground reports from the regional agricultural sector. Drought monitoring was expanded upon in this research through the development of several products intended for future Colorado Climate Center use. In-situ soil moisture timeseries are now being created from select SNOTEL and SCAN measurement sites. Reservoir monitoring graphics are being produced to accompany spatial analyses downloaded from the bureau of reclamation. More soil moisture data is being used, and now come from an ensemble of models rather than just the VIC model.
While only ten years of data were collected in analyzing the descriptive soil moisture climatology of the Colorado Rockies, these data were telling in terms of the expected seasonal cycle of soil moisture at high elevations. SNOTEL measurements reveal that soil moisture levels peak prior to snowmelt, large decreases in soil moisture are expected in June and early July, a slight recovery is anticipated in association with the North American Monsoon, and the sign of near-surface water balance flips back to positive in the first two weeks of September before soils freeze. Seasonal variance and distribution of volumetric water content varies in ways that are useful to understand from a drought monitoring standpoint. The data show that measurements are affected when soil freezes.
Comparing output from soil sensor relays using sensor types and calibration methods consistent with current SNOTEL and CoAgMet specifications revealed large differences in output regardless of being subject to the same meteorologic conditions.
Soil moisture measurement protocol development proved to be a trial and error process. The data collected at Christman Field was not sufficient proof that soil coring results did come within ten percent of ground truth perhaps due to microscale variations in infiltration. It was possible to develop a protocol of an acceptable standard that could be followed by citizen scientist for an estimated cost of $50.
Results from statistical modeling of post-processed NLDAS data from the last 30 years point primarily to a time frame between May and July in which soil moisture anomalies become significantly correlated with seasonal temperature and precipitation anomalies. This time of year is partially characterized by a climatologic maximization of downwelling solar radiation and a northward recession of the polar jet, but also precedes the anticipated arrival of the North American Monsoon. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.)
|Commitee:||Chavez, Jose, Denning, Scott|
|School:||Colorado State University|
|School Location:||United States -- Colorado|
|Source:||MAI 55/05M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Soil sciences, Atmospheric sciences|
|Keywords:||Colorado, Drought, Forecast, Moisture, Precipitation, Soil|
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