Tumor metabolism is a highly dysregulated process that is identified as a unique target for therapy. Current philosophy proposes that tumor metabolism is a plastic and flexible process which sustains proliferative and survival advantages. Tumors employ an anaerobic glycolytic pathway resulting in the overproduction of lactate. Additional thinking suggests that the conversion of pyruvate to lactate regenerates the NAD+ pool in the cell, maintaining a sustainable oxidative environment. Regardless of the reasons for lactate overproduction, its excretion and build up in the microenvironment results in acidic tumor microenvironments. Tumor acidosis has been measured with several different methods, but consistently averages from pH 6.6 to 7.0. Tumor acidity can thus be measured as a biomarker for tumor metabolism. This work examines the commonly explored energy pathways available to the cancer cell and a non-invasive MRI method to measure the efficacy of the tumor metabolism targeting agent. Appendix A is an introduction to tumor metabolism pathways and the large list of candidate therapies in interfering with energy production. Glucose, fatty acid, and glutamine metabolisms are all discussed along with PI3K/AKT/mTOR and HIF growth signals and ion transport. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography are examined as imaging methods for non-invasively interrogating tumor acidosis. Appendix B presents the findings in a study where tumor metabolism was targeted with an mTOR inhibitor, where tumor growth rate was initially decreased and accompanied by an early, acute increase in tumor extracellular pH with acidoCEST MRI. Chapter 2 discusses the combination of a lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor in conjunction with doxorubicin in a breast cancer model. Tumor extracellular pH was shown to increase when measured with acidoCEST MRI, and an increase in cell death was measured. Chapter 4 discusses the studies and experimental designs that can be done in the near future.
|Advisor:||Pagel, Mark D.|
|Commitee:||Briehl, Margaret M., Kuo, Phillip P., Martinez, Jesse D.|
|School:||The University of Arizona|
|School Location:||United States -- Arizona|
|Source:||DAI-B 77/10(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Acidocest MRI, Cancer biology, Molecular imaging, Tumor acidosis, Tumor metabolism|
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