# Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Teaching addition and subtraction operations with schematic place-value learning aids & the impact on arithmetic competency
by Kyriakidou-Christofidou, Athina, Ph.D., Saint Louis University, 2016, 186; 10109214
Abstract (Summary)

The present mixed-methods quasi-experimental study (embedding a case study and a mixed factorial within-between ANOVA test), conducted in a private English school in Limassol, Cyprus, investigated how the use of the schematic learning aids (researcher-made color-coded flash-cards and grids) influence year-2 children's ability to read, write and represent Hindu-Arabic numerals and how these number representations affect their arithmetic competency. This was achieved by comparing an intervention group (n=16) and a control group (n=17) before and after the 2-week intervention.

It is concluded that the use of the place-value learning aids facilitates numeration system conceptual understanding , reading, writing and representing numbers (in canonical and non-canonical form) by thinking in terms of "100s", "10s" and "1s" (or in terms of color-coded cards). Students visually relate the face-value of the digits (e.g. "3" and "5") of the number (e.g. "35") with the number of flash-cards to be used for the canonical representation (three orange cards and five blue cards). Children also understand how "53" differs from "35" or "503". It is further concluded that the use of the learning aids facilitates addition and subtraction performance in terms of "hundreds", "tens" and "ones" (rather than just "ones") either mentally or by constructing canonical and non-canonical representations with the use of the flash-cards and grids or by constructing abstract representations on paper. Students realize that ten cards of one color can be exchanged with one card of another color (or vice versa). Students further understand how "35-2" differs from "35-20" and how "51-32" differs from "52-31".

Quantitative data are in agreement with qualitative data, suggesting that children's arithmetic competency is enhanced when taught how to represent numbers, additions and subtractions with the use of the learning aids. The control group mean score increase from before to after intervention was 1,24 marks, compared to an increase of 11,06 marks for the intervention class. The medium to large Cohen's d effect sizes of 0,51 (comparing the intervention group score increase to the control group score increase) or 0,57 (comparing the intervention group score from before to after) indicate strong practical significance.

Indexing (document details)
 Advisor: Arend, Lauren Commitee: Rule, Ann, Symeonidou, Simoni School: Saint Louis University Department: Educational Studies School Location: United States -- Missouri Source: DAI-A 77/10(E), Dissertation Abstracts International Source Type: DISSERTATION Subjects: Mathematics education, Early childhood education, Curriculum development Keywords: Addition, Learning aids, Math, Place value, Subtraction, Teaching method Publication Number: 10109214 ISBN: 978-1-339-72511-6