The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag.
The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph.
Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.
|Advisor:||Rahai, Hamid R.|
|Commitee:||Hoang, Huy T., Shankar, Praveen|
|School:||California State University, Long Beach|
|Department:||Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||MAI 55/04M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Metrolink rolling stocks, Non-channeled locomotive, Reynolds averaged navier-stokes equation|
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