The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of weathering on the performance of intumescent fire-retardant coatings on wooden products. The weathering effects included primary (solar irradiation, moisture, and temperature) and secondary (environmental contaminants) parameters at various time intervals.
Wildland urban interface (WUI) fires have been an increasing threat to lives and properties. Existing solutions to mitigate the damages caused by WUI fires include protecting the structures from ignition and minimizing the fire spread from one structure to another. These solutions can be divided into two general categories: active fire protection systems and passive fire protection systems. Passive systems are either using pre-applied wetting agents (water, gel, or foam) or adding an extra layer (composite wraps or coatings). Fire-retardant coating treatment methods can be divided into impregnated (penetrant) and intumescent categories. Intumescent coatings are easy to apply, economical, and have a better appearance in comparison to other passive fire protection methods, and are the main focus of this study.
There have been limited studies conducted on the application of intumescent coatings on wooden structures and their performance after long-term weathering exposure. The main concerns of weathering effects are: 1) the reduction of ignition resistance of the coating layer after weathering; and 2) the fire properties of coatings after weathering since coatings might contribute as a combustible fuel and assist the fire growth after ignition.
Three intumescent coatings were selected and exposed to natural weathering conditions in three different time intervals. Two types of tests were performed on the specimens: a combustibility test consisted of a bench-scale performance evaluation using a Cone Calorimeter, and a thermal decomposition test using Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method (also known as SDT). For each coating type and weathering period, three different radiative heat flux levels were used in the combustibility tests. Data obtained from the tests, including flammability and thermal properties, were gathered, analyzed, and compared to non-weathered specimens.
The results revealed visible effects of weathering on pre (and up to)-ignition flammability and intumescent properties, especially decreases in Time-to-Ignition (TTI), Time-to-Intumescence (tintu.), and (maximum) Intumescence Height (Hintu.) values in weathered specimens. These results showed that the ignition resistance of the coating layers decreased after weathering exposure. On the other hand, the obtained results from weathered specimens for the post-ignition flammability properties, especially Peak Heat Release Rate (PHRR) and Effective Heat of Combustion (EHC) did not show a significant difference in comparison to the non-weathered samples. These results demonstrated that the weathered coating layer would not likely to act as an additional combustible fuel to increase fire spread.
|Commitee:||Kimble, Jeffrey T., Quarles, Stephen L.|
|School:||The University of North Carolina at Charlotte|
|Department:||Fire Protection and Administration|
|School Location:||United States -- North Carolina|
|Source:||MAI 55/03M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Polymer chemistry, Wood sciences, Materials science|
|Keywords:||Fire protection, Intumescent coating, Structure survival, Weathering effect, Wildland-urban interface|
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