The challenge with many cancers is not just killing the malignant cells, but doing so in a non-toxic manner. Plants are sources of many anti-cancer compounds, many of which have been developed into chemotherapies, e.g. taxanes from the bark of the Pacific yew tree and vinblastine from vincas. These chemotherapies are delivered in large doses and reduce tumor growth, but have severe side effects on normal tissue. Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, and kale contain anti-cancer compounds which are being isolated and examined. Some of the compounds are anti-oxidants, while others have yet to be identified. Numerous studies have been conducted on curly kale, B. oleracea sabellica, to identify some of the compounds responsible for the health benefits of consuming the plant, in its raw or juiced form. Much of this research focused on sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate that is also found in foods such as broccoli, brussel sprouts, and cauliflower. Sulforaphanes, among other compounds, have been shown to decrease cell proliferation, reduce inflammation, and induce protective autophagy in vitro. There are no studies that have examined the effect of kale juice on cells. We hypothesize that the natural context of kale’s bioactive compounds may provide significant anti-cancer effects. To test this hypothesis, kale juice was prepared and added to melanoma, epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Initially, four forms of juice were tested: juice made with a blender and three juices made with an electric juicer (juiced kale, juice that was filter-sterilized, and juice that was sonicated and then filter-sterilized). Serial dilutions were tested on B16F10 melanoma cells to determine the optimum dosage for inducing cell death. There was a dose-dependent decrease in cell growth and the lowest effective concentration was chosen for all subsequent experiments. The growth rate of cells treated with an equivalent amount of unfiltered lettuce juice was not different from the untreated cells. The sonicated and filter-sterilized extract also significantly reduced growth, but had different effects on melanoma and epithelial cells. When these experiments were repeated with non-cancerous cell lines, the juiced kale was found to be non-toxic to the epithelial cells and the fibroblasts at the dosage that kills melanoma cells. Future experiments will assess the safety and efficacy of kale juice for treating melanoma in vivo.
|Advisor:||Brandon, Elizabeth L.|
|Commitee:||Carmicle, Stephanie, McDonough, Suzanne, Reagan, Jerry|
|Department:||Biology, Medical Sciences|
|School Location:||United States -- Mississippi|
|Source:||MAI 55/02M(E), Masters Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Cancer, Juiced kale, Kale, Melanoma, Non-toxic|
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