Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Perinatal Exposure to the Flame Retardant Triphenyl Phosphate Increases the Rate of Onset of Type 2 Diabetes and Adipose Accumulation in UCD-T2DM Rats
by Green, Adrian James, M.S., University of California, Davis, 2015, 45; 1604037
Abstract (Summary)

Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is used globally as an additive to furniture, foams, electrical cables and electronics products either as a flame retardant or plasticizer. TPP is a major component of the flame retardant mixture, Firemaster 550 (FM 550), which is widely used in products available throughout the United States, yet very few studies have assessed its presence in environmental or human samples. Analysis of household dust samples has shown TPP concentrations as high as 1800 µg/g of dust. This could have adverse health effects as developmental exposure to FM 550 resulted in an increase in body mass, altered thyroid hormones, and insulin resistance in rats. In this study we hypothesized that developmental exposure to the commercial flame retardant TPP would increase the rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset, cause endocrine disruption, and obesity in a well characterized rat model of type 2 diabetes (UCD-T2DM rats). We administered TPP to UCD-T2DM rats from gestational day 8.5 to postnatal day 21 (weaning) and studied their metabolic phenotype from either 3.5 or up to 6 months to assess obesity and T2DM, respectively. Perinatal TPP exposure increased body weight and adiposity, in both male and female rats at 3.5 months of age, while leptin and cumulative energy intake were elevated in males and females, respectively. At 6 months of age 79% of male rats, perinatally exposed to TPP, developed T2DM and had lower fasting blood glucose while only 33% of the vehicle treated rats developed T2DM. Time to T2DM was not assessed in female rats. These observations suggest that perinatal exposure to TPP causes obesity in both male and female UCD-T2DM rats and accelerates type 2 diabetes mellitus onset in male UCD-T2DM rats. We have also shown that the UCD-T2DM rat is an effective model for testing developmental exposure to environmental pollutants and their effects on diabetes and obesity.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: La Merrill, Michele
Commitee: Havel, Peter, Newman, John
School: University of California, Davis
Department: Pharmacology and Toxicology
School Location: United States -- California
Source: MAI 55/02M(E), Masters Abstracts International
Subjects: Toxicology, Surgery, Developmental biology
Keywords: Obesity, Perinatal exposure, Triphenyl phosphate, Type 2 diabetes
Publication Number: 1604037
ISBN: 9781339260099