The origins of pairs of monozygotic twins and higher order multiples, i.e. triplets, quadruplets, etc., have been extensively studied but still little is understood. To gain insight into this event, certain possible cell labeling schemes that model an organism’s development are analyzed. The phenomenon of quadruplet twins is exposed during the process. We predict that monozygotic quadruplets are not really quadruplets but instead are two pairs of monozygotic twins where the pairs slightly differ. From the considered models, the probability of monozygotic twins is found to be (1/2)K, and we discover from our analysis that the probability of monozygotic quadruplets, or triplets in the case of the death of an embryo, is (1/8)K, where K is a species-specific integer representing the number of pairs of homologous chromosomes. This investigation into twinning provides a foundation for understanding the process of cell development through which the cell development mechanism is established. The failure of the internal cellular clock from this mechanism may play an important role in cancerogenesis. The parameter K may determine cancerization with a probability threshold that is approximately inversely proportional to the Hayflick limit, so exposure to small levels of ionizing radiation and chemical pollution may not produce cancer.
|Advisor:||Berkovich, Simon Y.|
|Commitee:||Spector, Alexander, Youssef, Abdou S., Zhang, Nan|
|School:||The George Washington University|
|School Location:||United States -- District of Columbia|
|Source:||DAI-B 77/03(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Molecular biology, Cellular biology, Computer science, Oncology|
|Keywords:||Cancerogenesis, Cell labeling, Internal cellular clock, Monozygotic twinning, Quadruplet twins|
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