Tissue hypoxia was recognized for its biological attenuating effects on ionizing radiation over a century ago and is a characteristic feature of many solid tumors. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates tumor hypoxia plays diverse and key roles in tumor progression, angiogenesis, and resistance to chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Hypoxia has known effects on progression and resistance to several standard treatment approaches and the significant history of study might suggest diagnostic imaging and therapeutic interventions would be routine in oncological practice. Curiously, this is not the case and the research results involved in this report will attempt to better understand and contribute to why this gap in knowledge exists and a rationale for harnessing the potential of detecting and targeting hypoxia. Despite the addition of oxygen and reversal of hypoxia being known as the best radiosensitizer, hypoxia remains unexploited in clinical cancer therapy. The studies reported herein detail development of a novel imaging technique to detect a subtype of tumor hypoxia, vascular hypoxia or hypoxemia, with a 17-fold increase (p<0.05) in uptake of pimonidazole targeted microbubbles observed compared to controls. This technique creates the potential to study the role of hypoxemia in progression and therapeutic response. Additionally, description of a nanoparticle-based therapy that targets tumor areas associated with tumor hypoxia and the tumor microenvironment in general is reported. TNF-loaded nanoparticles combined with radiotherapy resulted in a 5.25-fold growth delay that was found to be synergistic (p<0.05) and suggests clinical evaluation is warranted. An additional study to evaluate an approach to use thermal ablation of intratumoral hypoxia by an image-guided technique developed in our group is described along with a sequence dependence of radiation preceding ablation. A final study on the use of galectin-1 antagonist to significantly decrease (p<0.05) hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment by altering tumor vessel characteristics is illustrated in Chapter 5. Overall, this thesis details imaging approaches of tumor hypoxia and its detection, quantification and targeting in therapeutic approaches.
|Advisor:||Griffin, Robert J.|
|Commitee:||Eoff, Robert, Hardee, Matt, Kelly, Tom, Ware, Jerry|
|School:||University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences|
|Department:||Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences|
|School Location:||United States -- Arkansas|
|Source:||DAI-B 76/09(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Cellular biology, Nanotechnology|
|Keywords:||Hypoxia, Microbubbles, Tumors|
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