This study purposely examined the types of extrinsic rewards in male youth soccer programs and measures those that are most preferred by players to influence their participation motivation. It also checked if young soccer players skew towards programs that provide more reward opportunities. For this reason, 1000 teenage soccer players were randomized in an online survey administered by a community-based organization. 800 chose programs that provided extrinsic rewards and identified fame, trophies, travel, scholarship, exposure opportunities and money as the six main rewards that influenced their decision to join soccer programs.
A Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ) was then modified using the identified factors and issued to 400 participants between ages 14-18 years, randomly selected from 20 Las Vegas soccer clubs in another survey to rank extrinsic rewards according to importance. Data was collected and entered into the SPSS 17.0 software for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Cronbach alpha was applied to measure internal consistencies based on the demographics and attitudes towards participation motivation. One way ANOVA sought to determine the extent to which the identified extrinsic rewards affected participation motivation, and regression analysis examined the relationships across all factors.
Results from data analysis revealed that, exposure opportunities constituted the most important extrinsic reward that influenced young male soccer players' decision to join soccer programs. Scholarship, travel, fame, money and trophies followed suit. One-way ANOVA showed that race had a significant effect on scholarship, exposure opportunities, and fame. Multivariate regressions revealed that young players that are more motivated by scholarship, fame and travel tended to have higher ability levels. These effects were held even after adjusting for grade and age.
Results from the online survey also concluded that more young players tend to be attracted to soccer programs that provide extrinsic reward opportunities. Thus, extrinsic rewards should be considered and included in programs to enhance motivation.
|School:||United States Sports Academy|
|School Location:||United States -- Alabama|
|Source:||DAI-A 76/07(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be