Children with special needs often have a tendency to be externally oriented because of their accumulated failure experiences. Accordingly, when children enjoy successful experiences through art making, they may be more likely to feel a sense of control and employ their own abilities The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the impact of two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) art materials on LOC in South Korean elementary school children with special needs. This study compares the effects of 2D and 3D clay-based art materials in art therapy on LOC in special needs children in group art therapy in South Korea.
This mixed methods study employed a quantitative pre and post-test control group design with a qualitative component. 15 Children with special needs in a South Korean elementary school were divided into three groups using: (1) 2D art media only, (2) only 3D clay-based art media only, and (3) no artistic intervention. The two treatment groups underwent 10 sessions of art therapy. The age of the15 participants ranged from 7-12 years. The Stanford Preschool Internal-External Scale (Mischel, Zeiss, and Zeiss, 1974) was utilized for both the pre- and posttests. For qualitative data, observation, teacher interview, and art pieces were used. One-way ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk Statistic, post hoc test (Student-Newman-Keuls, Duncan, and Keuky HSD test), paired samples test, and Wilcoxon singed rank test were used for quantitative analysis. Result of quantitative and qualitative data indicate that 2D group and 3D group both showed increased internal LOC score, however, 3D group showed more significant change when analyzed the data using Post-hoc test (SNK and Duncan). The result supported the use of clay-based 3D art media aimed special needs children group art therapy programs.
|Commitee:||Gussak, David, Hanessian, Holly, Villeneuve, Pat|
|School:||The Florida State University|
|School Location:||United States -- Florida|
|Source:||DAI-A 76/06(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||Art, Clay, Locus of control, Special needs children, Therapy, Three dimensional art|
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