Multiple B lymphocyte subsets contribute to immune responses to pathogens. Among these, B-1 cells are a small subset of innate-like B cells whose development, phenotype, tissue distribution, and functions are distinct from those of conventional B-2 cells, and whose responses are crucial to protection against mucosal bacterial and viral pathogens. B-1 cells contribute to protective responses even before infection, by secreting natural antibody, a polyspecific repertoire of mostly IgM antibodies produced constitutively in the absence of foreign antigens. In response to influenza virus infection, B-1 cells actively respond by accumulating locally in draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MedLN), where they differentiate to secrete both virus-binding and non virus-binding IgM. Multiple details from those earlier studies suggest that the regulation of B-1a cell responses differs from that of conventional B-2 cells and that infection-induced but antigen-independent mechanisms contribute to B-1a cell activation and function. This dissertation explores the hypothesis that B-1 cells are regulated by the quality and magnitude of local infection-induced innate immune signals, including type I interferon (IFNs) and IL-1, critical mediators of anti-viral responses and pro-inflammatory signaling.
Previous studies of IL1R-/- mice showed that IL-1 signaling was required for maximal secretion of IgM and IgA after influenza infection. Because B-1 cells contribute at least half of influenza-induced IgM, we investigated the effects of IL-1 on B-1 cell redistribution and activation for IgM secretion. The studies outlined in the Second Chapter revealed that direct IL-1 stimulation did not contribute to the redistribution of B-1 cells to the lymph nodes, as it was neither directly chemotactic for B-1 cells, did not mobilize B-1 cells in vivo, nor altered the ability of B-1 cells to respond to the lymph node homing chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL13 in vitro. Instead, we found that IL-1 treatment alone modestly induced their IgM secretion in vitro. Using chimeric mice in which only B-1 cells lacked the IL-1R and which are distinguishable from B-2 cells based on Ig-allotypic differences, we investigated the ability of B-1 cells to respond to influenza virus infection. The data showed that these signals were required for maximum induction not only of CD5- B-1 cells, but also of the mostly B-2 cell-derived plasma blasts. Consistent with these findings we found IgM production both by B-1 and B-2 cells reduced. To begin to determine the mechanism by which B-1 cell IL-1 stimulation causes B-2 cell differentiation, we found that IL-1 stimulation selectively induced GM-CSF stimulation by B-1 cells. Furthermore, supernatants of IL-1-stimulated B-1 cells were able to induce IgM secretion by B-2 cells in vitro. Together, these findings suggest that activated B-1 cells play a regulatory role within lymph nodes by guiding conventional B-2 cell responses.
In the Third Chapter, we took a genome-wide gene expression array approach to conduct an unbiased analysis of B-1a cell populations in the peritoneal and pleural cavity and the spleen, before and at two time points after infection. The goal was to identify all signals that affect B-1a cells following influenza infection in vivo and to identify a likely source from which lymph node B-1 cells were recruited. Somewhat surprisingly, the results revealed strong gene expression differences present before infection between B-1 cells from different tissues. Influenza virus infection further altered gene expression from all three sites, but the strongest changes occurred in pleural cavity B-1a cells within 2 days of infection, indicating that rapidly induced, locally elaborated infection signals impact B-1a cells. Based on the affected genes, type I IFN was identified as a strong early innate factor providing site-specific signaling to B-1a cells. These results suggest that B-1a cells receive site-specific signals even prior to infection and that infection-induced local signals strongly affect pleural cavity B-1a cells, likely shaping their antiviral response.
The Fourth Chapter investigates the tissue origins of B-1a cells accumulating at the site of influenza infection and the role of type I IFN in their migration and differentiation. Labeled B-1a cells preferentially redistributed from pleural cavity sites to the draining MedLN after influenza infection, consistent with the results of our microarray analyses. However, in mice in which only B cells, or only B-1 cells lacked IFNR-expression, this enhanced accumulation was absent suggesting a role for type I IFN signaling B-1 cell redistribution. An in vitro vascular mimetic chamber model was used to evaluate the adherence of B-1 cells to a substrate consisting of ICAM-1 and CXCL13. Strikingly, type I IFN treatment or in vivo influenza infection stimulated B-1 cells to arrest on the substrate. Antibody-blocking studies showed that this was due to the increased integrin-mediated binding to ICAM-1. In vivo competition experiments designed to measure the ability of B-1 cells, from wildtype and CD11b or CD11a integrin-deficient mice, to accumulate in the MedLN in response to influenza infection after transfer into the pleural cavity of recipient mice, demonstrated the importance of CD11b in the B-1 cell redistribution process. Further studies suggested that type I IFN acts to enhance CD11b-mediated lymph node accumulation by activating the conformation state of CD11b. These studies identify a novel axis of type I IFN mediated integrin activation for rapid regulation of innate lymphocyte redirection.
Together, these studies provide two examples of innate-signaling mediated regulation of B-1 cell responses during influenza infection. The results indicate that B-1 cells in the body cavities are optimally positioned to rapidly respond to an infection and that their characteristic expression of CD11b aids in rapid migration and accumulation in regional lymphoid tissues. Finally, the results of this study also suggest that B-1a cells broadly regulate the adaptive antiviral response by providing non-redundant signals to conventional B-2 cells for maximal induction of virus-specific antibody responses.
|Commitee:||Miller, Lisa A., Simon, Scott I.|
|School:||University of California, Davis|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||DAI-B 76/04(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Keywords:||B lymphocyte, B-1 cells, IL-1, Influenza, Innate, Type I IFN|
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