The first study in Part 1 examines the effects of lake tropic structure on the uptake of iodine-131 (131I) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and considers a simple computational model for the estimation of resulting radiation dose. Iodine-131 is a major component of the atmospheric releases following reactor accidents, and the passage of 131I through food chains from grass to human thyroids has been extensively studied. By comparison, the fate and effects of 131I deposition onto lakes and other aquatic systems has been less studied. In this study we reanalyze 1960s data from experimental releases of 131I into two small lakes and compare the effects of differences in lake trophic structures on 131I accumulation in fish. The largest concentrations in the thyroids of trout may occur from 8 to 32 days post initial release. DCFs for trout for whole body as well as thyroid were computed using Monte Carlo modeling with an anatomically-appropriate model of trout thyroid structure. Activity concentration data was used in conjunction with the calculated DCFs to estimate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (Gy) to the thyroids after 32 days. The estimated cumulative thyroid doses at 32 days post-release ranged from 6 mGy to 18 mGy per 1 Bq mL-1 of initial 131I in the water, depending upon fish size.
The subsequent studies in Part 1 seek to develop and compare different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for O. mykiss for the purpose of estimating organ radiation dose and dose rates from 131I uptake and from molybdenum-99 (99Mo) uptake. Model comparison and refinement is important to the process of determining both dose rates and dose effects, and we develop and compare three models for O. mykiss: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing anatomically relevant organ size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion Factors (DCFs) for whole body as well as selected organs of O. mykiss were computed using Monte Carlo modeling, and combined with the empirical models for predicting activity concentration, to estimate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (µGy) to selected organs after several half-lives of either 131I or 99Mo. The different computational models provided similar results, especially for organs that were both the source and target of radiation (less than 30% difference between estimated doses).
Part 2 considers the use of reflectance spectroscopy as a remediation tool through its potential to determine plant stress from metal contaminants. The studies in Part 2 further investigate the potential use of reflectance spectroscopy as a method for assessing metal stress in plants.
In the first study, Arabidopsis thaliana plants were treated twice weekly in a laboratory setting with varying levels (0 mM, 0.5 mM, or 5 mM) of cesium chloride (CsCl) solution, and reflectance spectra were collected every week for three weeks using an ASD FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer with both a contact probe and a field of view probe at 36.8 and 66.7 cm above the plant. As metal stress is known to mimic drought stress, plants were harvested each week after spectra collection for determination of relative water content and chlorophyll content. A visual assessment of the plants was also conducted using point observations on a uniform grid of 81 points. Two-way ANOVAs were performed on selected vegetation indices (VI) to determine the significance of the effects of treatment level and length of treatment. Linear regression was used to relate the most appropriate vegetation indices to the aforementioned endpoints and to compare results provided by the three different spectra collection techniques. One-way ANOVAs were performed on selected VI at each time point to determine which, if any, indices offered a significant prediction of the overall extent of Cs toxicity. Of the 14 vegetation indices considered, the two most significant were the slope at the red edge position (SREP) and the ratio of reflectance at 950 nm to the reflectance at 750 nm (R950/R750). Contact probe readings and field of view readings differed significantly. Field of view measurements were generally consistent at each height. The second study investigated the potential use of reflectance spectroscopy as a method for assessing metal stress across four different species of plants, namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Helianthus annuus, Brassica napus var. rapa, and Zea mays.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a quantifiable relationship exists between reflectance spectra and lithium (Li) contamination in each species of plant considered, and if such a relationship exists similarly across species. Reflectance spectra were collected every week for three weeks using an ASD FieldSpec Pro Spectroradiometer with a contact probe and a field of view probe for plants treated twice weekly in a laboratory setting with 0 mM or 15 mM of lithium chloride (LiCl) solution. Plants were harvested each week immediately after spectra collection for determination of relative water content and chlorophyll content.
Linear regression was used to relate the most appropriate vegetation indices (determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient) to the aforementioned endpoints and to compare results provided by the different spectra collection techniques. Two-way ANOVAs were performed on 12 selected vegetation indices (VI) for each species individually to determine the significance of the effects of treatment level and length of treatment on a species basis. Balanced ANOVAs were conducted across all species to determine significance of treatment, time, and species. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
|Advisor:||Johnson, Thomas E.|
|Commitee:||Duff, Martine C., Knapp, Alan K., Kuhne, Wendy W., Pinder III, John E.|
|School:||Colorado State University|
|Department:||Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences|
|School Location:||United States -- Colorado|
|Source:||DAI-B 75/10(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Ecology, Nuclear physics, Environmental science|
|Keywords:||Dosimetry, Iodine, Phytoremediation, Plant toxicology, Rainbow trout, Reflectance spectroscopy|
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