The substitution of electrical energy for gasoline as a transportation fuel is an initiative both with a long history, and one made both pressing and important in today's policy discussion by renewed interest in plug-in vehicles. The research presented in this dissertation attempts to inform the policy discussion for governments, for electric utilities, for the makers of electric cars, and for the industries developing and planning charging infrastructure. To that end, the impacts of variations to several possible system design parameters, on several metrics of evaluation, are assessed. The analysis is based on a dataset of vehicle trips collected by Georgia Institute of Technology, tracking almost 500 vehicles that commute to, from or within the Atlanta city center, comprising Atlanta `commuter-shed'. By assuming that this dataset of trips defines the desired travel behavior of urban and suburban American populations, the effects of travel electrification in personal vehicles can be assessed.
Several significant and novel findings have emerged from this research. These include the conclusion that at-work charging is not necessarily the logical next step beyond home-charging, as it will in general add little to the substitutability of electric vehicles. In contrast, high power en-route charging, combined with modest power home charging is shown to be surprisingly effective, potentially requiring of EV drivers a total time spent at en-route recharging stations similar to that for liquid fueled cars. From the vehicle marketing perspective, a quantification of the hybrid household effect, wherein multi-vehicle households own one EV, showed that about a quarter of all households could adopt a vehicle with 80 miles of range with no changes to travel patterns. Of interest to grid management, this research showed an apparent maximum fleet-wide load from unregulated charging of about 1 kW per vehicle, regardless of EVSE power or EV battery size. This contrasts with a potential late night load spike an order of magnitude higher under certain time-of-use charging algorithm implementations. Finally, an EVSE and EV power capacity of 10-12 kW was shown to be a likely optimum if grid services from modulated charging are being considered.
|Advisor:||Kempton, Willett M.|
|Commitee:||Corbett, James J., Kurani, Kenneth S., Shankar, Ramesh|
|School:||University of Delaware|
|School Location:||United States -- Delaware|
|Source:||DAI-A 75/06(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Civil engineering, Transportation planning, Energy|
|Keywords:||Electric vehicle, Energy storage, Grid load, Renewable integration, Transportation electrification, Vehicle-to-grid|
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