The goal of this study is to explore the effects of mindfulness on smoking behavior and craving including nicotine dependence, nicotine withdrawal, and smoking cessation. Adults with more than ten years of chronic smoking and current smoking of five or more cigarettes daily were recruited for the study. Utilizing both a qualitative and quantitative research design, this study was experimental in nature with an interrupted time-series design using both within- and between -subjects comparisons. Ten smokers were recruited. All participants participated in a semi-structured telephone interview as well as completed the following assessment measures: the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) to assess smoking related behavior including physiological and behavioral symptoms; the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale (MPSS) to assess withdrawal symptoms; the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) to assess for mindful awareness of what was happening in the present moment; and the Smoking Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ) to assess participants' experience of, feelings about, and awareness of their smoking habit. Participants were assessed at three intervals; pre- intervention, immediately post- intervention, and two weeks post- intervention. It was hypothesized that the use of mindfulness practices would prove to be effective in decreasing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and nicotine dependence through increased mindful awareness indicating that mindfulness interventions are a viable treatment option for individuals wishing to quit smoking. Using a general linear model for repeated measures within the following covariates (age and years smoking) and factors (gender, marital status, and use of log book) there was no statistically significant difference in between-subjects and within-subjects results, however, a paired t-test on number of cigarettes smoked before and after the study revealed a significant reduction. Qualitative analysis also revealed that the use of mindfulness effectively reduced urges to smoke, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, frequency of smoking, and smoking related behaviors. Qualitative results further revealed that the mindfulness practice reduced stress, increased sense of calm and of peace, and increased mindful awareness and presence in participants' day to day lives.
|Commitee:||Lax, William, Sears, Richard|
|School:||Union Institute and University|
|Department:||Psychology Progam: Clinical Psychology|
|School Location:||United States -- Ohio|
|Source:||DAI-B 75/02(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Behavioral psychology, Psychology, Clinical psychology|
|Keywords:||Cessation, Dependence, Meditation, Mindfulness, Nicotine, Smoking|
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