Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Amphidromous Life History of the Caridean Shrimp Macrobrachium ohione (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Mississippi River System
by Olivier, Tyler J., Ph.D., University of Louisiana at Lafayette, 2013, 181; 3590041
Abstract (Summary)

Amphidromous species migrate between fresh water and the sea for larval development. Many caridean shrimps, especially Macrobrachium spp., are amphidromous, and some populations are found far-upstream within continental river systems. This project tested the hypothesis that populations of Macrobrachium ohione from the Atchafalaya and Mississippi Rivers are amphidromous.

In the laboratory, I tested the hypothesis that upstream populations of M. ohione have freshwater larval development. My results indicated that saline habitats are essential for M. ohione development, and larval mortality increased after 3-4 days of freshwater drifting. This provides indirect evidence that upstream populations have extended marine larval development.

Due to their limited freshwater survival, M. ohione must deliver larvae to the sea. Spatial-temporal analysis in the Atchafalaya and Mississippi Rivers reported an influx of reproductive-sized shrimps and females with near-hatching broods into coastal sites. This suggests that females are migrating downstream to hatch larvae in downstream habitats.

Stable isotope analysis indicated that the upstream juvenile migration originates from saline habitats. Video surveillance revealed that juveniles migrate throughout the night at an average speed of ∼ 0.56 km hr -1, and swimming speeds were related to the water velocity they swam against. From these results, I estimated that juveniles are capable of migrating to far-upstream habitats within their life span (1-2 years).

Lastly, I investigated how dams affect the juvenile migration, and tested juvenile migrant climbing abilities. This study reported greater densities of juveniles downstream of dams than upstream of dams, indicating the dams impede the juvenile migration downstream of Old River Control. Shrimp climbing studies revealed that at various inclinations and water velocities, ~ 52% of the shrimps were climbing the shrimp ramp and ~ 12% completed the climb. These results demonstrated juveniles can climb bypass structures with detectable water flows.

My findings suggest that M. ohione populations within the Mississippi River System are amphidromous, because they require marine larval development and long-distance migrations are conducted to and from the sea. This study may serve as a general model for migrations of amphidromous shrimps in comparable large rivers, and potentially contribute to freshwater shrimp conservation.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: Bauer, Raymond T.
Commitee: France, Scott C., Klerks, Paul L., McRae, Mark G., Moon, Brad R.
School: University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Department: Environmental and Evolutionary Biology
School Location: United States -- Louisiana
Source: DAI-B 74/12(E), Dissertation Abstracts International
Source Type: DISSERTATION
Subjects: Biology, Ecology, Zoology
Keywords: Amphidromy, Diadromy, Life history, Migrations, Mississippi river, River shrimp
Publication Number: 3590041
ISBN: 9781303292545
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