Population based descriptive studies, clinical trials, and evidence analysis of the literature have identified regular breakfast consumption as opposed to breakfast omission, as a habit independently associated with a more healthy weight. Recent studies have identified differences in insulin sensitivity and satiety hormones between breakfast eating and skipping groups, which help to explain the association between breakfast consumption and weight regulation. Evaluation of fasting insulin sensitivity, behavior, and the postprandial satiety response between breakfast groups were used to further elucidate the physiologic response to skipping breakfast.
First, through a review of the literature the proposed physiologic response to consuming breakfast as well as omitting breakfast is presented. A connection is made between the satiety hormone response and key components of the breakfast meal, which include composition, caloric load, energy density, volume, and time of day. The review findings suggest that breakfast consumption as opposed to breakfast omission stimulates a physiologic response that may help promote a healthy body weight.
Chapter 2 examines if self reported habitual breakfast skipping was related to fasting insulin resistance in a sample of 321 adults. Participants completed a questionnaire that focused on eating occurrences throughout the day and were then classified by how frequently they ate breakfast. Breakfast eating was related to fasting insulin and HOMA2-IR, both before and after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and exercise. These data suggest that fasting insulin resistance is affected by breakfast omission, and supports previous intervention studies that report a decline in postprandial insulin action after breakfast omission.
Chapter 3 evaluates the relationship between cognitive perception and the satiety hormone response. In a crossover intervention, satiety hormones (insulin and GLP-1), the hunger hormone ghrelin, and subjective ratings of meal satisfaction and eating behavior were compared before and after a low or high fiber breakfast meal. We found that reported perceptions of meal satisfaction, the perception of the breakfast meal, and the behavioral description of cognitive restraint can influence the physiologic regulation of satiety hormones measured in response to meal ingestion. Further evaluation of food consumption habits should consider cognitive perception as it may be important for optimal satiety and influence food intake regulation.
Lastly, chapter 4 was a cross-sectional study to assess the hormones insulin, leptin, GLP-1, and glucagon following a standard lunch meal in 30 women who were habitual breakfast eaters or habitual skippers. We found clear differences in circulating hormones between breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers even though all participants had similar hormone values at the start of the protocol. Our data further support the idea that regularly eating breakfast promotes changes in the postprandial pattern of satiety hormones.
|Advisor:||Keim, Nancy L.|
|Commitee:||Burton-Freeman, Britt, Ramsey, Jon J.|
|School:||University of California, Davis|
|School Location:||United States -- California|
|Source:||DAI-B 74/10(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Endocrinology, Nutrition, Physiology|
|Keywords:||Breakfast, Dietary habits, Food intake regulation, Physiology, Satiety, Weight regulation|
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