Developmentally, it is expected that the processes of working memory and processing speed will improve throughout childhood as a child's brain develops. However, students with learning, attention, and other childhood disorders often display difficulties in these areas. This study investigated the use of repeated measures to ascertain variability over time of two important cognitive processes: Working Memory and Processing Speed in a clinically referred population as measured by the WISC-IV to determine if a significant discrepancy exists between administrations. The study also investigated whether differences in Working Memory and Processing Speed from administration to administration would be greater in children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) vs. students with SLD (Specific Learning Disability). WISC-IV scores in Working Memory and Processing Speed from two administrations were examined from confidential archival records for 75 children ages 6-14. A two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted for hypothesis one with time as the within factor. A mixed ANOVA was conducted for the second hypothesis with group as the between factor and time as the within factor. Time was defined as the interval from one administration to the next. Second administrations were an average of two and a half years later. For hypothesis one, Processing Speed was statistically significant for time as a main effect although results were not statistically significant for Working Memory. For hypothesis two, Working Memory was statistically significant for time and group. The ADHD students performed significantly higher than SLD on Working Memory. Only time as a main effect was statistically significant for Processing Speed. Additional analyses examined medication status as well as comorbidity and gender as confounds. Those experiencing a medication change from one administration to the next as well as boys were significantly lower on Processing Speed.
Findings suggest students can perform quite variably across time even within the elementary school years. This research highlights the importance of repeat cognitive assessment in evaluating developmental disorders across time. Changes in Working Memory or Processing Speed determine types of interventions as well as accommodations that may be needed. This has ramifications for educational decisions regarding these students.
|Commitee:||Irvin, Matthew, Potter, Ellen, de Beus, Mary|
|School:||University of South Carolina|
|Department:||Educational Psychology / Research|
|School Location:||United States -- South Carolina|
|Source:||DAI-A 74/09(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Educational psychology, Psychology|
|Keywords:||Memory, Processing, Processing speed, Repeat assessment, Variability, Wisc-iv, Working memory|
Copyright in each Dissertation and Thesis is retained by the author. All Rights Reserved
The supplemental file or files you are about to download were provided to ProQuest by the author as part of a
dissertation or thesis. The supplemental files are provided "AS IS" without warranty. ProQuest is not responsible for the
content, format or impact on the supplemental file(s) on our system. in some cases, the file type may be unknown or
may be a .exe file. We recommend caution as you open such files.
Copyright of the original materials contained in the supplemental file is retained by the author and your access to the
supplemental files is subject to the ProQuest Terms and Conditions of use.
Depending on the size of the file(s) you are downloading, the system may take some time to download them. Please be