Slow sand filters (SSF) have been used to treat surface water to drinking water standards for over a century. Today many cities, including London still treat surface waters to drinking water standards, however because there are viruses that are not efficiently removed by a slow sand filter and are not killed by chlorine, communities have turned to the use of micro filtration and/or reverse osmosis to provide safe drinking water. These technologies are much more efficient if organics are removed and turbidity reduced to less than 1 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). The greenhouse industry is another potential user of slow sand filters. They are not able to recycle irrigation drainage water without it being treated to reduce bacteria, virus, and fungi.
The objective of this research was to develop management strategies for SSF that specifically meet the needs of entities using SSF for pretreatment of potable water or use in a greenhouse. This data was used to test a scour system that resulted in scouring 80 percent of the organic layer in the filter and suspending the solids for 40 minutes. A conceptual design was done for a full scale SSF that took advantage of the scour and suspension data to clean the SSF at the end of a run cycle. SSF were able to consistently produce water with a turbidity less than 1 (NTU) and with the infiltration capacity of 0.27 m3m-2. For greenhouse effluent a 1,000 square meter greenhouse that is discharging 3,600 L d-1 of drainage water would require a 12.6 m2 SSF, and the SSF for the community requiring treatment of 4.7 million liters per day of raw water was 730 m 2. The innovative cleaning system based on an air/water jet was developed to clean the SSF. Experiments were run to determine the amount of time that the solids were suspended and a scour system developed to exceed these times. The entire time for cleaning and recovery of the SSF was an average of 118 minutes for the greenhouse system and 170 minutes for the SSF serving a small community.
|Advisor:||Slack, Donald C.|
|Commitee:||Cuello, Joel L., Giacomelli, Gene A.|
|School:||The University of Arizona|
|Department:||Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering|
|School Location:||United States -- Arizona|
|Source:||DAI-B 74/09(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Agricultural engineering, Civil engineering|
|Keywords:||Filter, Layer, Sand, Schmutzdecke, Slow|
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