This study involved a comprehensive review of the literature on multimedia design to identify theory based design principles applicable to online instruction. Seven theories were reviewed. They included Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML), Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), Universal Design for Learning (UDL), Kosslyns’s (2007) eight Psychological Principles, and Wicken’s (1999) thirteen Principles of Display Design. The focus was on all learners including those with disabilities. Forty theory based design principles, supported by research, were verified through Q methodology model (Brown, 1980; McKeown & Thomas, 1988). Three panels of experts in 1) multimedia theory, 2) design/development of online instruction for all K–12, and 3) design/development of online instruction for students with learning disabilities rated the importance of each principle. The Q-sort involved sorting along the dimensions of a quasi-normal distribution scale. This prevented the experts from placing a disproportionate number of principles in any single category.
The response rate for experts was 81.1%. An Analysis of Variance was carried out to ascertain differences among the rating of expert by group and in combination and followed by a Post-Hoc Test. The result showed that only one principle had the p value = .042 between Group 1 Multimedia and Group 2 All K–12 Learners at the p < .05 significant level. The implications are that there was little differentiation between the focus on all students and the focus on students with learning disabilities. A correlation analysis was conducted with the correlation matrix indicating only six observed relationships were very strong. There were three principles with the most positive correlation coefficients ranging from r =.529 to r =.554. In contrast, there were three negative correlations coefficient between principles, ranging from r =.462 to r =.503. These results imply that there was considerable independence among the principles. The factor analysis resulted in five factors being identified i.e., Factor 1: Learner variability, Factor 2: Cognitive strategies, Factor 3: Prerequisites for teaching/learning, Factor 4: Context for learning, and Factor 5: Media presentation.
|Commitee:||Aust, Ronald, Branham, Richard, Greer, Diana, Lee, Young-Jin|
|School:||University of Kansas|
|Department:||Educational Leadership and Policy Studies|
|School Location:||United States -- Kansas|
|Source:||DAI-A 74/08(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Instructional Design, Special education, Educational technology|
|Keywords:||Learning disabilities, Online, Struggling learners, Theory-based design|
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