Osteoporosis has been found to be the most common systemic bone disease, characterized by reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. In the United States, 80% of individuals with osteoporosis were women. Among women with osteoporosis, it was projected that one out of three would suffer a fracture of the hip, wrist , or spine, with an increased risk of one in two for women above the age of sixty. Primary prevention efforts for post-menopausal women have been based on risk analysis and promotion of behaviors to support bone health.
Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D has been recognized as an evidence-based health behavior to promote bone health and prevent osteoporosis. The indices of bone health in post-menopausal women, which indicated adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, were calcium absorption and balance, serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels, bone mineral density, and fracture risk. The goal of this project was to establish a best practice guideline to promote bone health in post-menopausal women through adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D via nutrition or supplementation.
The primary recommendation was that the best source of calcium and vitamin D for post-menopausal women was through dietary sources because of the absorption, bioavailability, and minimal side effects. The amount of calcium and vitamin D that produced a positive outcome on bone health in post-menopausal women was 1200mg of calcium and 600IU of vitamin D daily for women aged 51 to 70. For women over age seventy, calcium of 1200mg and vitamin D of 800IU daily was recommended. The most effective way to measure the adequacy of calcium and vitamin D consisted of performing a thorough history and physical exam; measuring serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels, and bone mineral density; and assessing fracture risk based on each individual woman's risk factors. Health care providers have an opportunity to have an impact on bone health and prevent osteoporosis in post-menopausal women based on primary prevention, assessment of risk factors for osteoporosis, implementation of a plan of care, and encouraging bone health promotion behaviors for optimal quality of life.
|Commitee:||Adams, Swann A.|
|School:||University of South Carolina|
|School Location:||United States -- South Carolina|
|Source:||DAI-B 74/05(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Womens studies, Nursing, Nutrition, Public health|
|Keywords:||Bone health, Calcium, Post-menopausal, Vitamin D|
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