This dissertation examines the economics of tobacco use in Jordan. Jordan as a low-middle income country with a small economy and limited resources is experiencing a wide spread of tobacco use. The overarching aim of this research is to provide the first important insights about economics of tobacco use and the demand analysis in Jordan.
The heart of this analysis is to conduct a global survey called the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) that can be compared to other countries, from which the prevalence of tobacco use in Jordan, exposure to second hand smoke, quit attempts for those aged 15 and above, Gender differences of tobacco use and elasticity of demand for cigarettes can be estimated.
The results from the GATS showed that the overall prevalence of tobacco use for those aged 15 years old and above in 2011 was 42.2 %. By Gender men prevalence of smoking is estimated to be 55.9% and women is 23.7%. By type of tobacco The overall prevalence of cigarettes use is 35.2 % , water pipe is 15.2 %, and other types like hand rolled ciagreets, pipes and cigars is 1.5%.
With respect to the age of smoking initiation, approximately 42% of smokers started smoking cigarettes between the ages of 15 and 18,whereas 29% of respondents began smoking between the ages of 19-23. The least likely time to begin smoking in Jordan is between the ages of 7-9 and over the age of 60 (2% and3% of respondents, respectively). The average price of a pack of cigarettes is estimated to be 1.4 Jordanian Dinar and an average quantity of approximately 8 packs per week.
With respect to water pipe approximately 29% of water pipe smokers initiate smoking between the ages of 19-23. Similar to cigarette smoking, people are least likely to begin smoking between the ages of 7-9 and over 60 years.
Our results show that the average time it takes to smoke a water pipe in Jordan is 2.2 hours (range, 30 minutes to 5 hours). On average, 2 people share the same pipe (range, 0 to 6 people). The average number of rocks smoked while participating in the session was 2.1 (range, 1-4 rocks). Of water pipe smokers, 52% use flavored tobacco while 48% uses unflavored tobacco. Most water pipe smoking is done at home (87%), followed by coffee shops (12%), restaurants (0.9%), bars and nightclubs (0.1%). Approximately half of all respondents (48%) mix something with their tobacco, such as lemon or alcohol.
According to the GATS survey in Jordan, 2% of the sample consisted of former smokers. We found that 27.4% of Jordanian current smokers tried to quit smoking during the past 12 months, whereas 72.6% did not. Those who tried to stop smoking tried for several days, weeks, and months with no success. We found that smoking is allowed inside the home by 45% of all respondents. Another 22.6% of Jordanians allow some smoking in the home with some exceptions.
Only 11.2% of respondents reported that smoking is never allowed at home. Other than those persons just described, another 8.4% have no rules about smoking in their homes and 12.8% don’t know if smoking is allowed in their home.
In addition to household smoking, of the people interviewed, 42% work outside their home and 50% don’t work outside the home, and 8% did not answer. A little more than one-fourth of respondents (26.2%) work indoors, 7.1% work outdoors, and 9% work both indoors and outdoors. Smoking is allowed in all areas of the work place for 13.2% of respondents. Another 16.1% of interviewees reported that their workplaces allowed smoking only in some indoor areas. Only 6.6% of respondents stated that smoking is not allowed in any indoor areas, whereas 2.2% reported that there is no smoking policy at their work. And 64.1% don’t know.
The majority of respondents (81%) know that breathing other people’s secondhand smoke causes serious illnesses in non-smokers.
By gender advertising where sometimes noticed more by female than their male Counterparts. For example females noticed advertisements more than males on television (17.4% and 15.6% respectively), billboards (12.4% and 5.8 respectively), cinema (10.5% and 5.9%, respectively) and elsewhere like text messages (5.6% and 4.8 % respectively). 6% of females reported getting free samples of cigarettes compared to 2.2% of males. Females reporting getting cigarettes at sale prices were 7.8% compared to 5.5 %, while females report getting free gifts when buying cigarettes by 6.7% compared to men 6.4 %. Females are also getting clothing with cigarettes brand name or logo (8.9%) more than males (7.7%). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
|Commitee:||Johnson, Timothy, Kaestner, Robert, Peck, Richard, Tauras, John|
|School:||University of Illinois at Chicago|
|School Location:||United States -- Illinois|
|Source:||DAI-A 74/05(E), Dissertation Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Economics, Middle Eastern Studies|
|Keywords:||Cigarettes, Demand elasticity, Jordan, Smoking, Tobacco use|
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