Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Assessment of herbicides for control of non-native species: Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis), and tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)
by Kraka, Ernest Kwaku, Ph.D., Mississippi State University, 2012, 109; 3546543
Abstract (Summary)

Herbicides were evaluated for control of non-native and invasive plants namely tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum), tropical spiderwort or Benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis), and Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ), spp. multiflorum ), from 2007 to 2012 in greenhouse at Plant Science Research Center, Mississippi State University, Starkville-Mississippi. In TSA study, aminopyralid at 0.88 or 0.12 kg ae/ha, and triclopyr + picloram + 2,4-D at (0.56 + 0.15 + 0.56) kg ae/ha controlled TSA seedlings emergence ranged from 83 to 96% at premergence (PRE), and 1 month after treatments (MAT). All herbicides failed to provide more than 63% control of TSA at 3 and 6 MAT. In Benghal dayflower study, bentazon, bromoxynil, chlorimuron ethyl plus tribenuron methyl, dimethenamid-P, nicosulfuron plus rimsulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, S-metolachlor plus glyphosate plus mesotrione, and sulfosulfuron provided less than 50% control of Benghal dayflower during 6 weeks of evaluation whereas other herbicides: aminocyclopyrachlor (34-96%) ametryn (2-55%), atrazine (2-68%), diclosulam (12-67%), flumioxazin (59-83%), saflufenacil (24-78%), and sulfentrazone (67-96%) provided variable control of Benghal dayflower. In Italian ryegrass study, 50 seeds of F1 generation of resistant biotype '49E' and susceptible biotypes 'Gulf' and 'Marshall' of Italian ryegrass which were previously grown in mixture were used. Each biotype's F1 generation responce to imazapyr at 0, 1, and 2% under PRE, early post emergence (EPOST) and late postemergence (LPOST) was evaluated. At PRE, imazapyr at 1 and 2% reduced '49E' seedlings emerged 3 and 18%, respectively, but both rates failed to have any significant impact on fresh biomass weight compared to untreated. At EPOST, survival of '49E' shoots were reduced 3 to 10% by both rate of imazapyr whereas only imazapyr at 1% caused 0.74 to 3.8 % fresh biomass reduction. At LPOST, '49E' shoot survival was reduced 9 to 12% by both rate of imazapyr whereas both rate of imazapyr reduced '49E' fresh biomass 3 to 31%. In all the PRE, EPOST, and LPOST experiments, 'Gulf' and 'Marshall' were still susceptible to the imazapyr.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: Byrd, John D., Jr
Commitee: Bryson, Charles T., Chambers, Howard W., Madsen, John D., Massey, Joseph H.
School: Mississippi State University
Department: Plant and Soil Sciences
School Location: United States -- Mississippi
Source: DAI-B 74/04(E), Dissertation Abstracts International
Source Type: DISSERTATION
Subjects: Agronomy
Keywords: Benghal dayflower, Herbicides, Invasive plants, Italian ryegrass, Tropical soda apple
Publication Number: 3546543
ISBN: 9781267802392
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