Dissertation/Thesis Abstract

Evaluating Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Metabolism Using Targeted Metabolomics
by Keenan, Alison Haller, Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 2012, 162; 3540522
Abstract (Summary)

Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (n3 FAs) has gained wide-spread popularity as a consequence of their reported ability to improve multiple health outcomes. The benefits of n3 FAs have been linked to competition with omega-6 fatty acids (n6 FAs) in metabolism; however, the mechanisms of action of n3 and n6 FAs are not fully understood. Targeted metabolomics were utilized in 3 studies to investigate the role of n3 and n6 FAs in metabolism. Specifically, quantification of oxygenated lipid metabolites (oxylipins) from both n3 and n6 fatty acids were measured to explore their production based on dietary consumption. First, a human study was conducted where n3 FAs were given as a supplement, with measurements of fatty acids and plasma oxylipins before and after the 4 week trial. Following 4 weeks of n3 FAs supplementation, n3 FAs increased in red blood cells (RBCs), platelets and plasma at the expense of n6 FAs. Oxylipins derived from n3 FAs increased, but did not significantly decrease oxylipins from n6 FAs. The second study was in Syrian hamsters fed a diet containing a 20:1 ratio of n6:n3 FAs in a low fat (LF) and a high fat (HF) diet over 14 weeks. LF animals increased fatty acid synthesis, and the n6:n3 ratio was increased in plasma in LF animals relative to HF animals. Oxylipins derived from n3 FAs were increased in HF animals. The third study explored cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition in HF diets and HF diets supplemented with n3 FAs. Plasma oxylipin profiles of animals supplemented with n3 FAs were similar to animals on a high fat diet supplemented with aspirin. In sum, these three studies provide insight into the impact of n3 FAs on fat metabolism, which include increased n3 FAs incorporation into blood compartments, decreased n6 FAs in plasma and increased plasma n3 derived oxylipins. Physiological effects of n3 derived oxylipins are not yet fully elucidated, but documentation of their occurrence and abundance is a step towards understanding their role in health outcomes associated with n3 FAs intake.

Indexing (document details)
Advisor: Newman, John W.
Commitee: Haj, Fawaz G., Kristiansen, Karsten
School: University of California, Davis
Department: Nutritional Biology
School Location: United States -- California
Source: DAI-B 74/02(E), Dissertation Abstracts International
Source Type: DISSERTATION
Subjects: Analytical chemistry, Biochemistry, Nutrition
Keywords: Eicosanoids, Fat metabolism, Fish oil supplementation, Omega-3 fatty acids, Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Targeted metabolomics
Publication Number: 3540522
ISBN: 9781267657121
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