Introduction: Association between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been demonstrated by many epidemiological studies in developed countries, however few studies have been performed in developing countries of Asia.
Objective: In this study, we evaluated fine particulate matter and its combustion-derived particles, black carbon (BC) and Delta-C (DC) (a proxy for UV-absorbing organic compounds), as metrics for evaluating CVD health effects of air pollution in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: Yearlong (2008-2009) PM2.5 samples were collected at 2 sites at 24-hour intervals; a commercial-residential and industrial-residential site. Daily records of hospitalizations and ER visits for CVDs were collected at the 3 major tertiary hospitals serving Karachi. BC and DC measurements were obtained from PM2.5 filters using an optical transmissometer. Generalized linear time-series models were utilized to analyze daily counts of hospital, meteorological, and pollutant data over 0 to 3 day lags.
Results/Discussion: PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 27 to 279 μg/m3. Daily mean BC concentrations varied from 1 to 32μg/m3, and DC ranged from 0 to 9 μg/m3. Higher effect estimates per 1 μg/3 for BC and DC compared with PM25 were observed. Effect estimates were generally higher with BC and DC from Tibet Center, the commercial-residential site, compared with Korangi, the industrial-residential site. These results suggest BC and DC were associated with CVD health effects that were not reflected quantitatively when modeled with PM2.5.
Conclusions: This study provides new scientific evidence of the magnitude of CVD health effects associated with air pollution in an urban center of a large developing nation, evaluates BC and DC as additional indicators for evaluating CVD health impacts associated with ambient air pollution, and provides Pakistani officials with important information for policy planning. BC and DC are valuable additional air quality indicators for evaluating health risks from combustion-derived particles in developing megacities.
|Commitee:||Carpenter, David, Wang, Ying|
|School:||State University of New York at Albany|
|Department:||Environmental Health Sciences|
|School Location:||United States -- New York|
|Source:||MAI 50/06M, Masters Abstracts International|
|Subjects:||Atmospheric Chemistry, Environmental Health, Epidemiology|
|Keywords:||Asian megacity, Black carbon, Cardiovascular diseases, Fine particulate matter, Karachi, Pakistan, Urban air pollution|
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